Modern sites, apps, services are becoming more complex, dynamic, and multifunctional. They must actively interact with the user and adapt to the changing environment, which determines the constant evolution of methods for their development and support. To meet the growing needs of the IT technologies market, experts have developed the newest tool – the web framework. It is a platform for creating a new generation of web products, and their effective support. It is designed for complex, large-scale projects and allows you to implement non-standard solutions.
The web framework provides basic modules, based on which a flexible site is created with wide possibilities for modernization, expansion of functionality due to the integration of extra apps in the future. The standard architecture of the framework is based on the three layers:
- Model. Responsible for the formation of the structure, business logic rules.
- Performance. The main function is the graphical display of data.
- Controller. It implements communication with the user, converting the information coming from them into commands for the previous two layers.
Frameworks allow you to build apps quickly, easily, and efficiently, as well as use ready-made code snippets, eliminating the need to write them from scratch. In general, this makes custom web development easy and quick. The choice of the framework from all the variety depends on the needs of a particular project. Here are the pros of this approach:
- high speed of developing apps;
- the possibility of continuous product evolution by integrating new extensions into the structure;
- simple, convenient servicing;
- maximum security of data storage;
- the use of a framework for the site provides it with a quick response, the ability to withstand significant loads.
Depending on the specifics of the tasks that they can solve, three categories can be distinguished:
- Backend. They work exclusively on the server side. They are focused on performing individual functions related to storage, data protection, and ensuring vital processes. With their help, you can create simple websites with a rather limited interface. Notable backend frameworks: Django, Express.js, Symfony.
- Frontend. They are not related to the logic of the app, as they function directly in the browser. They are designed to create user interfaces with a variety of graphics and animations. Examples: Svelte, Angular.
- Fullstack. Versatile tools that work efficiently on both sides. Their peculiarity is that they use the same programming language for the server and client parts. Therefore, when the backend and frontend frameworks pass HTML code between the parties, the full stack is exchanged. Example: Meteor.
If you are interested in the topic, on Fiverr, you can read more about the difference between frontend and backend.
Another classification is made according to the programming language used. Several categories have their own characteristics. Please note, we will not consider JS frameworks, as for their review, a separate article is required.
1) Best PHP frameworks
They include the following products:
- Yii is a fairly easy-to-use tool and is often recommended for inexperienced developers. Despite its considerable age, it continues to be constantly updated, providing the user with advanced functionality: caching, error handling, database transfer.
- Symfony is a web product designed to build large-scale but flexible sites. In its arsenal, there are a lot of components, templates, forms for reusable use, which greatly simplifies the implementation of routine tasks.
- Phalcon PHP is open source. It is versatile in use, as it can be combined with almost all operating systems. It is characterized by increased performance compared to analogs, the platform can be installed even on your server.
- Laravel is the most popular PHP framework according to many surveys. It also has open-source code, which contributes to rapid updates and improvement. Thanks to the implementation of the functions of automatic loading of classes, effective database management, it allows you to implement a large-scale project as quickly as possible.
2) Notable HTML / CSS framework
They include the following:
- Bootstrap is one of the leaders in this segment, which has existed since 2011. The most essential plus is the availability of an adaptive layout, which allows the site to adjust to the screen size of any gadget. Development and support are implemented quite simply due to the significant number of templates and styles that Bootstrap works with.
- The Foundation framework is an effective front-end tool. It is great for creating mobile apps, as it is adapted to the latest smartphones.
- Uikit has a lightweight, modular structure that facilitates the development process. It includes about 30 highly adaptable components. Its main advantage is the markdown function, which allows you to view the pages of the site being created during revision.
3) The most popular Python frameworks
- Flask. It has a minimal set of basic functions, but a high level of flexibility and extensibility. On this platform, you can create a truly exclusive web product tailored to the needs of the customer. It is in demand among newbies in development due to its simple functionality.
- Django. It is equipped with its own administration system. It differs in ease of writing code since repeated lines do not have to be entered manually. They are generated automatically.
- Tornado. The main advantages of the tool are the highest performance, the ability to withstand significant loads (up to several thousand simultaneous connections) with a high response rate. Ideal for developing online services.
To implement a large project in 2021, it is worth paying special attention to the choice of a suitable framework, because not every platform has the necessary functionality to solve complex problems. The most important thing is not to be guided by popularity, but to take into account the peculiarities of your project.
Regardless of whether the web studio uses Python, HTML/CSS, or PHP frameworks, it is vital to understand that this product is highly effective, but it works correctly only if there is a competent team of IT specialists who can fully realize all its capabilities. A competent approach will allow you to choose a framework that will fully satisfy your needs.